The hard-hitting English skipper showed no mercy to the winless Afghans, pounding one six after another on his way to a 71-ball 148 scored at a strike rate of a staggering 208.45. They beat their own previous record of 24 sixes, which they achieved against West Indies in Grenada earlier this year.
Sharma and de Villiers hit their scores in non-World Cup matches.
He was out to the very next ball, going down the ground again but this time falling short, with Rahmat Shah taking the catch.
Eoin Morgan went off the field with a back spasm in England's last match.
17 Sixes hit by Morgan in his innings - the most by an individual in an ODI.
Encephalitis in India kills more than 90 children
The outbreak of Acute Encephalitis Syndrome is just not coming to an end in Muzaffarpur and surrounding areas in Bihar. Until 2005, doctors say that the the majority of deaths were caused by Japanese encephalitis , a mosquito-borne virus.
Ireland's Kevin O'Brien holds the record for the fastest World Cup hundred off 50 balls - and incidentally it came against England in a record run chase in the 2011 World Cup in India.
The highest World Cup total is 417-6 by Australia against Afghanistan in Perth en route to the title in 2015.
But the sixes kept coming, with Moeen Ali setting a new team record when he launched the penultimate delivery of the innings, from Dawlat, over long-on.
Buttler has the record for the fastest ODI century by an England batsman, reaching triple figures off 46 balls.
In England's top four, only James Vince (26), replacing the injured Jason Roy in the playing XI, missed out on a half-century.
Speaking before the tournament, Morgan said: "Growing up in Ireland, being such a small community, there's always a story somewhere in a town or village locally where people haven't quite made it or there's an excuse, they haven't given themselves the best shot or they found it hard being away from home. So, yeah, tough school".