Xi brought with him two Chinese pandas for the Moscow Zoo.
The trip comes five years after Moscow's annexation of Ukraine's Crimea peninsula led to a serious rift with its Western partners and subsequent turn toward its neighbour to the east.
China and Russian Federation have aligned their foreign policies and other positions at the United Nations on major issues such as Venezuela's economic and political crisis, the Syrian civil war and Iran's nuclear program, usually in direct opposition to the stance taken by Washington.
Bilateral trade surged 27.1 percent in 2018 to hit a record of 107.1 billion USA dollars, the highest growth rate among China's top 10 trading partners.
A special exhibition opened on Wednesday in the Bolshoi Theater, where a ceremonial event dedicated to the anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations will be held with the attendance of the two leaders.
Recognizing that the current worldwide security is facing serious challenges, China and Russian Federation intend to deepen strategic mutual trust and strengthen strategic coordination to firmly safeguard global and regional strategic stability, according to the joint statement.
Xi will also attend the 23rd St. Petersburg International Economic Forum, Zhang said. "The animal is a symbol of China and the gesture is very important to our partners", Mr. Ushakov said. The share of trade with Russian Federation held by China has nearly doubled to 20% since then, at Europe's expense.
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Cooperation with China is seen by Moscow as "the lesser of two evils" to stimulate economic growth, Gabuev said - the alternative being deep internal reforms and reconciliation with the West.
"Russia and China are working for settling the crisis in Syria, pressing for stabilization in Venezuela and stay committed to the full implementation of the Comprehensive Joint Plan of Action for the Iranian nuclear program", Putin added.
A closer and stronger partnership between China and Russian Federation, both permanent members of the UN Security Council, is also set to make the world more peaceful, stable and prosperous.
Both countries would also discuss their relationship with the "great Western powers, including the United States", he said.
President Xi Jinping's three-day state visit to Russian Federation starting on Wednesday will help build even stronger ties between Beijing and Moscow amid a changing global climate, officials and experts said.
Putin and Xi were meeting in Moscow as world leaders gathered on the south coast of England to mark the 75th anniversary of the D-Day landings.
His remark is seen as implicit criticism of the USA as Beijing and Washington are sharply divided on trade issues.