The UK could still leave the European Union on March 29 with no deal but the Speaker's intervention now makes it more likely that the Prime Minister will ask for a longer postponement, which many who support Brexit are concerned could lead to it not happening at all.
"She wants that to happen as soon as possible".
The EU is intensely frustrated with Britain's political paralysis, and say they will only grant an extension if United Kingdom politicians break their deadlock and decide what kind of Brexit they want.
But the meeting is said to have descended into a row, with the Leader of the Commons, Andrea Leadsom accusing colleagues of failing to deliver Brexit.
He added: "What the government can not legitimately do is to resubmit to the House the same proposition or substantially the same proposition as that of last week which was rejected by 149 votes".
If she could get the deal approved after the biggest parliamentary defeat for a government in modern British history, it would mark a spectacular and surprising turnaround and by far the biggest achievement of her crisis-riven tenure.
Explaining that Mrs May "won't be asking for a long extension" when she writes to the EU, Number 10 said: "There is a case for giving Parliament a bit more time to agree a way forward, but the people of this country have been waiting almost three years now".
May also met backbench colleagues to sound them out about the next steps - including former foreign secretary Boris Johnson, who is widely regarded as the potential front-runner in a leadership contest, should the prime minister step aside.
Earlier, Brexit Secretary Stephen Barclay signalled that ministers would press on with Mrs May's Brexit deal despite the Commons Speaker's bombshell intervention.
However, he insisted that Mrs May's agreement remained "the only deal on the table".
The ruling was welcomed by eurosceptic lawmakers in May's Conservative Party because it appeared to increase the likelihood of Britain leaving the European Union without a deal.
Lakers Sunk by Late Knicks Run
The Lakers led by 11 with 3:45 to play, and it seemed as though they would avoid the embarrassment of losing to the Knicks. If you are saying you are the reason he's missing shots, you are an idiot. "Of course that stuff bothers me", James said.
To get her deal through parliament, May must win over at least 75 lawmakers - dozens of rebels in her own Conservative Party, some Labour lawmakers, and the Northern Irish Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), which props up her minority government.
While Mr Bercow cited previous rulings dating back to the 17th century in his Commons statement, Mr Barclay said he had previously made clear the House should not necessarily be bound by precedent.
Bercow said his ruling should not be considered his last word and the government could bring forward a new proposition that was not the same as those already voted upon.
"May I say how delighted I am that you have chose to follow precedent, which is something I am greatly in favor of", said Jacob Rees-Mogg, chairman of the European Research Group of eurosceptics in parliament.
The head of the 2016 referendum campaign to leave the EU, Matthew Elliott, said he expected lawmakers to "see sense" and pass May's deal by March 29.
The pressure to come up with changes means May is likely to get only one more chance to put her deal to a vote. "The clock is ticking", he said.
Natalie Loiseau, minister for European affairs in the French government, wrote: 'He wakes me up every morning miaowing to death because he wants to go out, and then when I open the door he stays in the middle, undecided, and then gives me evil looks when I put him out'.
"It's not just a game".
The Irish government has been adamant it will not accept changes to the Northern Ireland backstop - meant to ensure there is no return of a hard border - which remains the main stumbling block to an agreement for many MPs.
"Everyone should now finalise all preparations for a No-Deal scenario", he said.